a gerund is the –ing form of a verb (e.g., talking, playing, understanding)
An Infinitive is to + the simple form of a verb (e.g., to talk, to play, to understand).
|a) Playing tennis is fun
b) We enjoy playing tennis
c) He’s excited about playing tennis.
|a gerund is the –ing form of a verb used as a noun. A gerund is used in the same ways as a noun. i.e., as a subject or an object.
In (a): playing is a gerund. It is used as the subject of the sentence. Playing Tennis is a gerund phrase.
In (b): playing is used as the object of the verb enjoy.
In (c): playing is used as the object of the preposition about.
*COMPARE the uses of the –ing form of verbs:
1) walking is good exercise. (walking = a gerund, used as the subject of the sentence).
2) Bob and Ann are playing tennis. (Playing = a present participle, used in the present progressive tense.
3) I heard some surprising news. (surprising = a present participle, used as an adjective).
USING GERUNDS AS THE OBJECTS OF PREPOSITIONS
|a) We talk about going to Canada for our vacation.
b) Sue is in charge of organizing the meeting.
c) I’m interested in learning more about your work.
|A gerund is frequently used as the object of a preposition.|
|d) I’m used to sleeping with the window open.
e) I’m accustomed to sleeping* with the window open.
f) I look forward to going home next month.
g) They object to changing their plans at this late date.
|In (d): through (g): to is a preposition, not part of an infinitive form, so a gerund follows.|
|h) We talked about not going to the meeting, but finally decided we should go.||Negative form: not precedes a gerund.|
*possible in British English: I’m accustomed to sleep with the window open.
|PRESENT||V-ing||Being + V3|
|PERFECT||Having + V3||Having + Been + V3|
- 1. Present Gerund (Active)
|Examples :||▪ I am afraid of coming late
▪ Running is good for your health
▪ She dreads getting wet
- 2. Present Gerund (Passive)
|Examples :||▪ The baby is afraid of being kidnapped
▪ Do you like given some money ?
- 3. Perfect Gerund (Active)
|Examples :||▪ They enjoy having played football
▪ I am afraid of not having passed the exam
- 4. Perfect Gerund (Passive)
|Examples :||▪ She appreciated having been rewarded as the best student
▪ Many children enjoy having been taken to the zoo
COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY GERUNDS
VERB + GERUND
a) I enjoy playing tennis
|Gerunds are used as the objects of certain verbs. In (a): enjoy is followed by a gerund (playing). Enjoy is not followed by an infinitive.
INCORRECT: I enjoy to play tennis. Common verbs that are followed by gerunds are given in the list below.
|b) Joe quit smoking
c) Joe gave up smoking
|(b) and (c) have the same meaning. Some two-word verbs, e.g., give up, are followed by gerunds. These two word verbs are given in parentheses in the list below.|
*stop can also be followed immediately by an infinitive of purpose (in order to).
COMPARE the following:
(1) Stop + gerund: when the professor entered the room, the students stopped talking. The room became quite.
(2) Stop + infinitive of purpose: while I was walking down the street, I ran into an old friend. I stopped to talk to him. (I stopped walking in order to talk to him).
|Examples :||▪ He denied killing the robber
▪ She always avoids meeting me
▪ We enjoy living in this tinny village
COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVE
Verbs followed immediately by an infinitive
|VERB + INFINITIVE
a) I hope to see you again soon
b) He promised to be here by ten.
c) He promised no to be late.
|Some verbs are followed immediately by an infinitive, as in (a) and (b). See group A below.
Negative form: not precedes the infinitive.
|d) Mr. Lee told me to be here at ten o’clock.
e) The police ordered the driver to stop.
|Some verbs are followed by a (pro)noun and ten an infinitive, as in (d) and (e). See group B below.
These verbs are followed immediately by an infinitive when they are used in the passive, as in (f) and (g).
|f) I was told to be here at ten o’clock.
g) The driver was ordered to stop.
|h) I expect to pass the test.
i) I expect Mary to pass the test.
|Ask, expect, would like, want, and need may or may not be followed by a (pro)noun object. COMPARE:
In (h): I think I will pass the test.
In (i): I think Mary will pass the test.
|Examples :||▪ My friends beg me to join with them
▪ They prepare to go to Bali
▪ She promise to lend me 2 history books
▪ Michelle pretends to sleep
▪ My mother wants me to get married
▪ Shifa reminds me not to smoke in the class
▪ Yani theaches her child to cook fish
The following verbs can be followed by either the infinitive or the gerund with now change in meaning.
|Examples :||▪ I start working / I start to work
▪ She continued reading / She continued to read
▪ Romeo began to study / Romeo began studying
VERBS + PREPOSITION FOLLOWED BY THE GERUND
If a verb + Preposition, adjective + Preposition, Noun + Preposition, or Preposition alone is followed directly by a verb, the verb always be in the gerund form. The following list of verb + Prepositon.
|Approve of||Give up|
|Rely on||Worry alone|
|Be better of||Insist on|
|Count on||Keep on|
|Think about||Depend on|
|Put off||Think off|
|Examples :||▪ My father gives up smoking
▪ Rima succeed in working in Jakarta
ADJECTIVE + PREPOSITION FOLLOWED BY THE GERUND
The following adjective + Preposition are also followed by the Gerund
|Accustomed to||Capable of|
|Intent on||Successful in|
|Afraid of||Fond of|
|Interested in||Tired of|
|Examples :||▪ They afraid of meeting a ghost
▪ My sister fond of dancing
NOUN + PREPOSITION FOLLOWED BY THE GERUND
The following noun + Preposition are also followed the gerund
|Choice of||Excuse for|
|Reason for||(Method of)|
|Possibility of||Intention of|
|Examples :||▪ We have reason for refusing our cheaf
▪ Our teacher has a good method for teaching
ADJECTIVE FOLLOWED BY THE INFINITIVE.
The following adjectives are always followed by the infinitive form of the verb and never by the gerund.
|Examples :||▪ She is boring to meet you
▪ I am ready to go to concert