a gerund is the –ing  form of a verb (e.g., talking, playing, understanding)

An Infinitive is to + the simple form of a verb (e.g., to talk, to play, to understand).


a)      Playing tennis is fun

b)      We enjoy playing tennis

c)      He’s excited about playing tennis.


a gerund is the –ing form of a verb used as a noun. A gerund is used in the same ways as a noun. i.e., as a subject or an object.

In (a): playing is a gerund. It is used as the subject of the sentence. Playing Tennis is a gerund phrase.

In (b): playing is used as the object of the verb enjoy.

In (c): playing is used as the object of the preposition about.

*COMPARE the uses of the ing form of verbs:

1)      walking is good exercise. (walking = a gerund, used as the subject of the sentence).

2)      Bob and Ann are playing tennis. (Playing = a present participle, used in the present progressive tense.

3)      I heard some surprising news. (surprising = a present participle, used as an adjective).


a)      We talk about going to Canada for our vacation.

b)      Sue is in charge of organizing the meeting.

c)      I’m interested in learning more about your work.

A gerund is frequently used as the object of a preposition.
d)      I’m used to sleeping with the window open.

e)      I’m accustomed to sleeping* with the window open.

f)       I look forward to going home next month.

g)      They object to changing their plans at this late date.

In (d): through (g): to is a preposition, not part of an infinitive form, so a gerund follows.
h)      We talked about not going to the meeting, but finally decided we should go. Negative form: not precedes a gerund.

*possible in British English: I’m accustomed to sleep with the window open.


PRESENT V-ing Being + V3
PERFECT Having + V3 Having + Been + V3
  1. 1.    Present Gerund (Active)
Examples : ▪ I am afraid of coming late

▪ Running is good for your health

▪ She dreads getting wet


  1. 2.    Present Gerund (Passive)
Examples : ▪ The baby is afraid of being kidnapped

▪ Do you like given some money ?


  1. 3.    Perfect Gerund (Active)
Examples : ▪ They enjoy having played football

▪ I am afraid of not having passed the exam


  1. 4.    Perfect Gerund (Passive)
Examples : ▪ She appreciated having been rewarded as the best student

▪ Many children enjoy having been taken to the zoo



a)      I enjoy playing tennis

Gerunds are used as the objects of certain verbs. In (a): enjoy is followed by a gerund (playing). Enjoy is not followed by an infinitive.

INCORRECT: I enjoy to play tennis. Common verbs that are followed by gerunds are given in the list below.

b)      Joe quit smoking

c)      Joe gave up smoking

(b) and (c) have the same meaning. Some two-word verbs, e.g., give up, are followed by gerunds. These two word verbs are given in parentheses in the list below.

*stop can also be followed immediately by an infinitive of purpose (in order to).

COMPARE the following:

(1)   Stop + gerund: when the professor entered the room, the students stopped talking. The room became quite.

(2)   Stop + infinitive of purpose: while I was walking down the street, I ran into an old friend. I stopped to talk to him. (I stopped walking in order to talk to him).


Admit Advise Anticipate Appreciate Avoid Complete
Consider Delay Deny Discuss Dislike Enjoy
Forget Can’t Help Keep Mention Mind Miss
Postpone Practice Quit Recall Recollect Recommend
Regret Remember Resent Resist Risk Stop
Suggest Tolerate understand Finish Give Up  
Examples : ▪ He denied killing the robber

▪ She always avoids meeting me

▪ We enjoy living in this tinny village


Verbs followed immediately by an infinitive


a)      I hope to see you again soon

b)      He promised to be here by ten.

c)      He promised no to be late.

Some verbs are followed immediately by an infinitive, as in (a) and (b). See group A below.

Negative form: not precedes the infinitive.

d)      Mr. Lee told me to be here at ten o’clock.

e)      The police ordered the driver to stop.

Some verbs are followed by a (pro)noun and ten an infinitive, as in (d) and (e). See group B below.

These verbs are followed immediately by an infinitive when they are used in the passive, as in (f) and (g).

f)       I was told to be here at ten o’clock.

g)      The driver was ordered to stop.

h)      I expect to pass the test.

i)        I expect Mary to pass the test.

Ask, expect, would like, want, and need may or may not be followed by a (pro)noun object. COMPARE:

In (h): I think I will pass the test.

In (i): I think Mary will pass the test.


Afford Agree Appear Arrange Ask Beg
Consent Decide Demand Deserve Expect Fail
Hesitate Hope Learn Manage Mean Need
Prepare Pretend Promise Refuse Regret Remember
Plan Seem Offer Sear Threaten Volunteer
Care Wait Want Wish Claim Struggle
Examples : ▪ My friends beg me to join with them

▪ They prepare to go to Bali

▪ She promise to lend me 2 history books

▪ Michelle pretends to sleep

▪ My mother wants me to get married

▪ Shifa reminds me not to smoke in the class

▪ Yani theaches her child to cook fish

The following verbs can be followed by either the infinitive or the gerund with now change in meaning.


Begin Like Try
Hate Start Dread
Regret Continue Prefer
Can’t Stand love  
Examples : ▪ I start working / I start to work

▪ She continued reading / She continued to read

▪ Romeo began to study / Romeo began studying


If a verb + Preposition, adjective + Preposition, Noun + Preposition, or Preposition alone is followed directly by a verb, the verb always be in the gerund form. The following list of verb + Prepositon.

Approve of Give up
Rely on Worry alone
Be better of Insist on
Count on Keep on
Think about Depend on
Put off Think off
Succeed in  
Examples : ▪ My father gives up smoking

▪ Rima succeed in working in Jakarta


The following adjective + Preposition are also followed by the Gerund

Accustomed to Capable of
Intent on Successful in
Afraid of Fond of
Interested in Tired of
Examples : ▪ They afraid of meeting a ghost

▪ My sister fond of dancing


The following noun + Preposition are also followed the gerund

Choice of Excuse for
Reason for (Method of)
Possibility of Intention of
Method for  
Examples : ▪ We  have reason for refusing our cheaf

▪ Our teacher has a good method for teaching



The following adjectives are always followed by the infinitive form of the verb and never by the gerund.

Anxious Boring Dangerous Hard
Eager Easy Good Strange
Pleased Prepared Ready Able
Usual Common Difficult  
Examples : ▪ She is boring to meet you

▪ I am ready to go to concert


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