1. 1.      Possibility
  • Conclusion
  • Past Form              : modal + have + V3
  • Modal Used are     : Will, Must, Should, Ought to, May, Might, Could.


Roni always studies hard. He always goes to school and he is never absent. He gets good mark. He must pass the exam nexy month.


Yasmin            : Where is Akbar?

Rofi                 : I don’t know where he is now. He m ay be going to hospital because I saw him visiting a doctor.


  1. 2.      Impossibility
  • Modal: Couldn’t, Can’t, Must not, May not, Might not.


I have just seen Akbar eaten a huge meal, he has already eaten 2 plates of rice. Akbar couldn’t be hungry now.

Nunung is going to Surabaya now. She is shopping in Tunjungan Plaza. She can’t be visiting me now.

Zahra couldn’t be hungry because I have seen her ate 2 plates of rise.


  1. 3.      Habitual Action in The Past
  • Modal : Would, Used to.


My father would read  me a story at night before I go to bed when I was child.

I used to study English at night when I was in Senior High School.


  1. 4.      Wishes
  • Modal : May


May God bless us

May you be the winner


  1. 5.      Request
  • Modal : Can, May, Shall, Will, Might, Could, Would.


Could I borrow your pen?

May I visit your sister?


  1. 6.      Permission
  • Modal : Can, Could, May, Might.


They used in positive affirmative form.

He could accompany my beautiful sister if he keeps his promise.

They may attend that concert if they buy the ticket.


  1. 7.      Ability
  • Modal : Can (present / future), Could (Past only), Be able to (All tenses).

Examples :

He can run fast now

Wawan  could run fast without stopping when he was twenty

I am able to dance Bali nicely


  1. 8.      Prohibition
  • Modal : Must not (Present Future).

Examples :

You must not smoke in the class when class begins

They mustn’t go to Bandung now.


  1. 9.      Necessary
  • Modal : Must (present, future), Have to (present), Had to (past).

Examples :

If you want to pass in your test, you must study harder.

They had to forgive their patient teacher.


  1. 10.  Suggestion
  • Modal : Could


(It is often used to give more  than one solution). Rini is confused to choose her major subject in University. I say, “you could choose in a departement that is proper with what you want or you would share to your teacher to see your talent”.

  1. 11.   Advisability
  • Modal : Should (Past, Present, Future), Ought to (Past, Present, Future), Had Better.

Should is used to :

You should respect your parent

You ought to practice what has you gotten


  1. 12.  Expectation
  • Modal : Be to = must, Be supposed to.

Example :

Our headmaster is supposed to give a naughty boy punishment.


  1. 13.  Preference
  • Modal : Would Rather.

If the sentence compares between two things:

(S + Would Rather + V1………..than V1…………= formal)

She would rather write a novel than plag the guster

(S + Would rather + V1…………than to………….= informal)

I would rather hurt my self than to ever make you cry.

(S + Prefer + O to O)

I prefer Rambutan to Banana

(S + Prefer + V ing ………….to V ing)

She prefer drinking coffee to drinking tea

(S + Prefer + to Infinitive …………. (to) to Infinitive ……………..)

My father prefers to watch TV to wash a car


  1. 14.  Semi Modal


  1. A.    Need
    1. 1.      As Noun

Eating is human basic need

  1. 2.      As Verb (need, needed, needed)

They need you

I need an Umbrella

  1. 3.      As Modal Auxilary

You needn’t visit your naughty friend


  1. B.     Dare
    1. 1.      As Noun

Don’t care their dare

  1. 2.      As Verb (dare, dared, dared)

Muhammad Ali dares Hollifield to fight

  1. 3.      As Modal

I dare dare you

The man dare pass the area himself at night



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