THE DERIVATIVE WORDS

A great number of words in English are developed by combining word elements. The starting points of these words are known as roots; most roots come to us from Latin and Greek words. However, we do have words from other sources.

When new words are needed, they are made up from prefixes, word roots and suffixes.

A root is a word in its simplest and first form. The Latin root vis (or vid = see) gives meaning to these English words: vision, television; visual, audio-visual; visit, visitor; revise, revision.

A prefix is a word element added to the beginning of a root to form a new word. Disagree; unnecessary; subnormal.

A sufix is a word element added on the end of a root to form a new word: ant = one who; assistant = one who assists.

  1. A.      LATIN ROOTS

Many English words are derived from Latin words. For example: manuscript comes from two Latin words: manus, the hand and scriptus, written; and means literally – written by hand.

 

LATIN ROOTS MEANING WORD DERIVED FROM LATIN ROOTS
Alter

Anima

Annus

Aqua

Audio

Cado (casum)

Capio (captum)

Caput

Cedo (cessum)

Centum

Civis

Clamo

Claudo (clausum)

Colo (cultum)

Corpus (corporis)

Credo (creditum)

Cura

Curro (cursum)

Decem

Dens (dentis)

Dico (dictum)

Duco (ductum)

Facio (factum)

Fero

Fido

Finis

Flecto (flexum)

Fluo (fluxum)

Frango (fractum)

Frater

Fundo (fusum)

Gradior (gressus)

Habeo (habitum)

Jacio (jactum)

Judex (judicis)

Jungo (junctum)

Lego (lectum)

Loquor (locutus)

Magnus

Manus

Mater

Memor

Mitto (missum)

Moveo (motum)

Nascor (natus)

Navis

Novus

Par

Pars

Pater

Patior (passus)

Pax (pacis)

Pello (pulsum)

Pendo (pensum)

Peto (petitum)

Plico (plicatum)

Pono (positum)

Porto

Premo (pressum)

Puto (putatum)

Scribo (scriptum)

Sentio (sensum)

Sequor (secutus)

Solus

Solvo (solutum)

Specio (spectum)

Spiro (spiratum)

Sto (statum)

Struo (structum)

Tango (tactum)

Tendo (tentum)

Traho (tractum)

Unus

Valeo

Venio (ventum)

Verto (versum)

Video (visum)

Vinco (victum)

Vivo (victum)

Voco (vocatum)

Volvo (volutum)

Other

Breath

A year

Water

I hear

I fall

I take

The head

I go

A hundred

A citizen

I shout

I shut

I till

The body

I believe

Care

I run

Ten

A tooth

I say

I lead

I do or make

I bear

I trust

The end

I bend

I flow

I break

A brother

I pour

I go or walk

I have

I throw

A judge

I join

I read

I speak

Big or great

The hand

Mother

Mindful

I send

I move

I am born

A ship

New

Equal

Part

Father

I suffer

Peace

I drive

I hang

I seek

I fold

I place

I carry

I press

I think

I write

To feel

I follow

Alone

I loosen, melt

I see

I breathe

I stand

I build

I touch

I stretch

I draw

One

I an strong

I come

I turn

I see

I conquer

I live

I call

I roll

Alter, alteration, alternative

Animate, animation, animal

Annual, anniversary

Aquatic, aqueduct

Audible, audience, audition

Eccident, decay, deciduous

Accept, cupture, receive

Capital, captain, precipitate, chapter

Antecedent, accede, exceed, succeed

Cent, centenary, century, centipede

Civic, civilian, civilise, city

Proclaim, exclaim, reclaim, disclaim

Close, conclusion, exclude, include

Agricultural, cultivate, culture, colony

Incorporate, corpse, corpuscle

Incredible, credulous, credence, credit

Cure, accurate, curious, secure

Excursion, current, course, occur, recur

Decimal, decimate, december

Indent, dentist, dental, indentation

Benediction, edict, contradict, vedict

Abduction, deduce, induce, conduct, duct

Affect, effect, benefit, fact, perfect

Infer, defer, fertile, offer, proffer

Confidence, deffident, fidelity

Final, finalist, finally, finish, define

Flexible, inflecton, reflect, flex

Superfluous, affluent, fluid, fluent

Fracture, refract, fraction, fragile

Fraternal, fraternity, fraternise

Infusion, confuse, diffuse, refuse

Progress, digress, gradual, graduate

Habit, habitual, inhabit, exhibit

Project, inject, object, eject, reject

Prejudice, judge, judicial, judicious

Conjunction, junction, joint, juncture

Illegible, diligent, intellect, lecture

Elocution, soliloquy, eloquent

Magnitude, magnificient, magnify

Manual, manuscript, manufacture

Maternal, matrimony, matron

Remember, memo, memorable, memorise

Transmit, submit, emit, remit, missile

Promote, emotion, locomotive, mobile

Innate, native, natal, pre-natal

Navigate, navy, naval

Renovate, novice, innovate

Par, parity, disparity

Particle, part, participate, partial

Paternal, patriarch, patricide

Patient, compassion, compatible

Pact, compact, pacify

Compel, compulsion, expel, dispel, propel

Append, depend, dependent, suspend

Repeat, compete, petition, competition

Ply, simple, duplicate, triple

Deposit, depose, dispose, expose, pose

Portable, support, transport, export

Compress, depress, express, impress

Reputation, dispute, repute, compute

Prescribe, describe,transcribe

Sense, resent, sensual, sensible

Sequel, conseutive, sect, consequent

Solitary, solitude, desolate, solo

Dissolve, insolvent, soluble, resolve

Inspect, spectator, suspect, aspect

Aspire, conspire, inspire, perspire

Distance, obstacle, stationary, stand

Construct, destroy, destruction, obstruct

Contagious, contact, contingent, tact

Distend, extend, pretend, contend

Abstract, detract, extract, portrait

Unanimous, unit, union, unison, unify

Invalid, valid, valiant, prevalent

Advent, avenue, prevent, venture, invent

Avert, convert, divert, revert, version

Evident, visible, visual, vision, visor

Convict, convince, victim, victory

Revive, survive, vital, vivid

Vocal, cocation advocate, evoke, invoke

Evolve, involve, revolt, revolve

  1. B.       GREEK ROOTS
GREEK ROOTS MEANING WORD DERIVED FROM GREEK ROOTS
Arche

Aster

Baros

Bios

Chronos

Demos

Ergon

Ge

Grapho

Gramma

Logos

Metron

Mikros

Monos

Pathos

Philos

Phone

Phos

Polis

Polys

Skopeo

Tele

Therme

zoon

Rule

A star

Weight

Life

Time

The people

Work

The earth

I write

What is written

Discourse, speech

A measure

Small

Alone

Feeling

Love

Sound

Light

A city

Many

I view

Far

Heat

An animal

Monarchy, anarchy, oligarchy

Asterisk, astrology, astronomy

Barometer, baroscope, baritone

Microbe, biology, antibiotic

Chronometer, chronicle, synchronise

Democracy, epidemic, democratic

Energy, metallurgy, surgeon, liturgy

Geography, geology, geomorphology

Autograph, paragraph, graphic, telegraph

Diagram, epigram, monogram, telegram

Catalogue, dialogue, epilogue, apology

Metre, chronometer, geometry, perimeter

Microscope, microbe, micron, microfilm

Monarchy, monologue, monolith, monopoly

Sympathy, apathy, Empathy, pathos

Philanthropy, philosopher, philately

Telephone, microphone, phonetic, symphony

Phosphorus, photograph, photogenic

Metropolis, cosmopolitan, police, politics

Polygamy, Polygon, polyp, polyanthus

Telescope, periscope, kalaidoscope

Telescope, telegram, television, telecast

Thermal, thermos, thermometer, diathermy

Zoology, zoo, zoography, zodiac, zoophile

English has borrowed or derived words from other languages

Germany France Italy India
Blitz

Lager

Mesmerise

Boutique

Camouflage

Disco

Concert

Scenario

Spaghetti

Bungalow

Curry

Pyjamas

shampoo

Spain Holland Scandinavia Arabia
Bonanza

Guerrilla

Guitar

Dollar

Gin

Yacht

Cosy

Saga

Ski

Alcove

Alcohol

Magazine

safari

Africa Caribbean australia  
Banana

Commando

Barbecue Okker

Strine

PREFIXES

A prefix is a word element added to the beginning of a root to form a new word. The following list contains preixes from both Latin and Greek.

PREFIX MEANING EXAMPLES
L. a

L. a-ab-abs

L. ad-ac-ar

L. ante

G. anti

G. arch

G. auto

L. bene

L. bi-bis-bin

G. cata

L. circum

L. co-com-con

L. contra

L. de

G. dia

L. di-dis

L. e-ex

L. ex

G. epi

L. extra

L. fore

G. hemi

G. homo

G. hyper

G. hypo

L. in-im-il-ig-ir

L. im-in

L. inter

L. mal

L. mis

L. non

L. ob-op-o

G. para

G. peri

G. poly

L. post

L. pre

L. pro

L. re

G. semi

L. sub

L. super

G. syn, sym

G. tele

L. trans

G. tri

L. ultra

L. un-uni

On, out, up

Away from

To

Before

Againts, opposite

Chief

Self

Well

Two, twice

Down

Around

Together, with

Against

Down, away, from

Through or across

Apart from, not

Out of, out, from

Former

Upon

Beyond

Before, in front of

Half

The same

Over, above, more

Under

Not

Into

Between

Ill, bad

Wrong

Not

Against

Beside

Around

Many

After

Before

Forward, before

Back, again

Half

Under

Above, over

With

Far

Across

Three

Beyond

one

Aboard, ashore, aloft

Avert, abstain, abnormal, abduct

Adhere, accept, arrive, adjacent

Antecedent, anticipate

Antiseptic, antibiotic, antidote

Architect, archbishop

Automatic, authograph, autobiography

Benefit, benevolent,beneficial

Bicycle, bisect, bilingual, binocular

Catalogue, catastrophe, catapult

Circumnavigate, circuit, circumference

Connect, combine, co-operate, concur

Contradict, contrast, contrary

Descend, depart, decrease, deflect

Dialogue, diagonal, diagram, diameter

Different, disagree, disappear

Exclude, expel, emerge, export

Ex-policeman, ex-convict

Epidemic, episode, epitaph, epilogue

Extraordinary, extraneous, extravagant

Forefront, foremost, foresee

Hemisphere

Homogeneous, homonym

Hypercritical, hypertension

Hypocrisy, hypothesis, hypotenuse

Incorrect, impure, illegal, ignoble, irregular

Import, include

Intervene, international

Malignant, malefactor

Mistake, mislead, mis-spell, misfire

Nosense, non-existent

Object, obstruction, oppose

Parallel, paralysis, parasite

Perimeter, period,periscope

Polygon, polygamy, polygamist

Postpone, postmortem, postscript

Prepare, precede, prejudice, predict

Propose, project, progress, proceed

Rejoin, return, recount, recede

Semi-circle, semi-colon

Submarine, subway, subjugate

Superstructure, superhuman

Sympathy, syntax, synthesis, synonym

Television, telescope, telegram, telegraph

Transfer, transmit, transport, transpose

Tripod, triangle, triple, tricycle

Ultra-modern, ultra-violet

Unanimous, unicorn

SUFFIXES

A suffix is a word element added on the end of a root   to form a new word.

SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLES
Able, ible

Ac, an

Ain, an

Ance, ence

Ant, ent

Ard, art

Ary

Ative

Ble

Craft

Dom

Eer, er, or, ier

El, en, et, ette

En

Ence

Esque

Ess

Fold

Ful

Fy

Ic

Ice

Icle, sel

Ion, tion

Ise, ize

Ish

Ism

Ive

Lent

Less

Ling

Ly

Ment

Ness

Ory, tory

Ous

Ship

Sion

Teen

Tude

Ty

Ward

Wise

Y

Capable of being

One who

One connected

with

State of being

One who

Habitual

A place where a thing is kept

Ending to

Capable or being

Skill

Rank or condition

Used to denote a person engaged in a trade or profession

Little

Made of

Used in forming nouns of quality or action

After the manner of

A female person

Multiplied by

Full of

To make, to

Belonging or pertaining to

Used in forming abstract nouns from nouns and adjectives

Little

Used for indicating action or condition

To treat in a certain way

Having the nature of

Used in the formation of abstract nouns

Tending to

Full of

Free from, Without

Little

Having the qualities of repeated at intervals

Forms a noun that expresses the result of the action

Used in forming abstract nouns from adjectives

A place where, for abounding in

Used in forming abstract nouns

Used in indicating action or condition

With the addition of ten

A condition of

Tens

Used in the formation of abstract nouns

Used in indicating direction

Manner or way

State of

Can be added to words to make adjectives or abstract nouns

Moveable, acceptable, edible, incredible

Maniac, comedian

Chaplain, publican

Dependence, existence, repentance

Assistant, servant, student

Drunkard, braggart

Aviary, granary, mortuary, library

Talkative, secretive

Soluble

Handicraft

Kingdom

Engineer, mountaineer, painter, glazier, baker, traveller, governor, sailor

Maiden, cigarette, piglet, locket, leaflet

Golden, soften

Patience reverence

Picturesque

Countess, duchess, goddess, princess

threefold

Useful, beautiful, skilful, thoughtful

Simplify, purify, rectify, glorify

Politic, civic, metallic

Justice, cowardice

Icicle, morsel, particle

Creation, situation

Minimise, criticize

Childish, English, Spanish

Heroism, baptism

Active

Fraudulent

Careless, hopeless, pointless

Duckling, gosling

Manly, womanly

Hourly, weekly, monthly

Employment, enjoyment, acknowledgement, establishment

Darkness, brightness

Factory, dormitory, observatory

Industrious, famous, dangerous, glorious

Hardship, friendship

Extension

Fifteen, fourteen, sixteen, seventeen

Solitude, solicitude

Seventy, eighty, ninety

Cruelty

Westward, eastward, southward

Clockwise

Energy

Heavy, rainy, honesty

Iklan

Tinggalkan Balasan

Isikan data di bawah atau klik salah satu ikon untuk log in:

Logo WordPress.com

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Logout / Ubah )

Gambar Twitter

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Facebook

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Google+

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Logout / Ubah )

Connecting to %s