THE CONJUCTIONS

Conjuctions are words that join words, phrases and clauses. There are two main kinds of conjuctions:

  1. Conjuctions that join similar parts of speech and clauses of equal value – and, both, but, for, therefore, either-or, neither-nor.

The girl and the boy went to school.

Both John and Diane played squash.

He was bruised but not badly hurt.

It was raining therefore the roads were hazardous.

Either John or Mary is coming.

Neither Jill nor Joanne wants to go.

 

  1. Conjuctions that join principal clauses to subordinate clauses.

Principal

Clause

Subordinate

=

=

=

First in importance

A group of words that has a finite verb

Of secondary or inferior importance

(1)   CONJUCTIONS OF TIME

After, before, now, since, untill, till, when, whenever, while.

After the man opened the gate, he called the dog.

The woman ate her lunch before she called the taxi.

Now that we have had some rain, the drought has broken.

Since I met her, we have become friends.

We will wait here untill the next bus arrives.

The boys were heading for the river when we saw them.

Whenever it is possible, we shall visit our grandmother.

While there is life, there is hope.

(2)   CONJUNCTIONS OF PLACE

where, wherein, wherever.

That is the house where my grandmother lived.

The criminal must be found wherever he is.

(3)   CONJUNCTIONS OF CAUSE OR REASON

As, because, lest, since, whereas, why.

As she was in a hurry, I did not delay her.

We know the driver caused the accident because we saw it.

I wonder why they left the party early.

(4)   CONJUNCTIONS OF CONCESSION

Although, even if, however, though, whether, while.

Although I have telephoned twice, he has not returned the call.

Just as we were about to leave, however, visitors arrived.

Nobody knows whether it is true or not.

(5)   CONJUNCTIONS OF CONDITION

As, except, if, unless.

He could not work out the answer, clever as he was.

Except that she is slow, her writing is legible.

Let me know if you wish to go.

John will do no work unless he is forced.

(6)   CONJUNCTIONS OF MANNER OR DEGREE

As, as—as, as if, as that, as though, how, so as, than.

The new house is still vacant as far as we know.

She speaks as if she knows all about it.

The teacher showed Trevor how the sum should be done.

He is taller than I am.

(7)   CONJUNCTIONS OF PURPOSE

In order that, lest, so that, that.

I sent him a letter so that he would know about the delay.

(8)   CONJUNCTIONS OF CONSEQUENCE

As, for, so that, that.

As the pop-singer had laryngitis, he was unable to sing.

He called loudly so that the searchers would find him.

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