THE ADJECTIVAL CLAUSE

THE ADJECTIVAL CLAUSE

 An adjectival clause does the work of an adjective in a sentence. Unlike the adjectival phrase, the clause contains a finite verb. Like the adjectival phrase it is always connected with a noun or pronoun.

John is a boy who has a great sense of humour.

I like the flowers that are in the garden.

ADJECTIVES

ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

An adjective modifies a noun. “modify” means to change a little. An adjective describes or gives information about the noun.

 

An adjective clause modifies a noun. It describes or gives information about a noun.
An adjective usually comes in front of a noun An adjective clause follows a noun

    adjective   Noun     noun   Adjective clause
(a) I met a Kind + Man (c) I met a Man + Who is kind to everybody.
    adjective   noun     noun   Adjective clause
(b) I met a Famous + Man (d) I met a Man + Who is a famous poet.
              noun   Adjective clause
          (e) I met a Man + Who lives in Chicago

 

  GRAMMAR TERMINOLOGY  
(1) I met a man = an independent clause; it is a complete sentence. A clause is a structure that has a subject and a verb.

There two kinds of clauses : Independent and dependent.

(2) He lives in Chicago = an independent clause; it is a complete sentence.
  • An independent clause is a main clause and can stand alone as a sentence.
(3) Who lives in Chicago = a dependent clause; it is NOT a complete sentence.
  • A dependent clause cannot stand alone as a sentence; it must be connected to an independent clause.
(4) I met a man who lives in Chicago = an independent clause + a dependent clause; a complete sentence.  

 

USING WHO AND WHOM  IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

 

      s     v In (a): He is a subject pronoun. He refers to “the man.”

To make an adjective clause, change he to who.

Who is a subject pronoun. Who refers to “the man.”

(a) The man is friendly. He lives next to me.
      who  
        s       v
      Who lives next to me.
        In (b): an adjective clause immediately follows the noun it modifies.
(b) The man    who lives next to me     is friendly
           
          INCORRECT: The man is friendly who lives next to me.
         
                 
      s   v     o In (c): him is an object pronoun. Him refers to “the man.”

To make an adjective clause, change him to whom.

Whom is an object pronoun.

Whom refers to “the man.”

Whom comes at the beginning of an adjective clause.

(c) The man was friendly I met him
               Whom

 

 

o        s  v

Whom I met

                 
                 
        In (d): an adjective clause immediately follows the noun it modifies.

 

INCORRECT: the man was friendly whom I met.

       
         
(d) The man        whom      I met was friendly

 

USING WHO, WHO(M), AND THAT IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

 

        s v   In addition to who, that can be used as the subject of an adjective clause.
(a) The man is friendly He Lives next to me.
      Who     (b) and (c) have the same meaning.
      That            
                     S  

v

      A subject pronoun cannot be omitted:

INCORRECT : the man lives next to me is friendly.

CORRECT : the man who/that lives next to me is friendly.

(b) The man who lives next to me is friendly.  
(c) The man that lives next to me is friendly.  
         
                   
          s  v  o     In addition to who(m)*, that can be used as the object in an adjective clause.

(e) and (f) have the same meaning.

(d) The man was friendly, I met  him.
    Whom    
      that    
          An object pronoun can be omitted from an adjective clause. (e), (f), and (g) have the same meaning.

In (g): The symbol “Ø” means “nothing goes here.”

 

     O s   v    
(e) The man Who(m) I met Was friendly.
(f) The man That I met Was friendly.
(g) The man Ø I met Was friendly.

*The parentheses arround the “m” in who(m) indicate that (especially in everyday conversation) who is often used as an object pronoun instead of the more formal whom.

 

USING WHICH AND THAT IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSE.

 

      s V   Who and whom refer to people. Which refers to things. That can refer to either people or things.

 

(a) The river is polluted. It Flows through the town.
      Which     In (a): to make an adjective clause, change it to which or that. It, which, and that all refer to a thing (the river).

(b) and (c) have the same meaning.

      That    
    s v    
(b) The river Which Flows through the town Is polluted.
(c) The river That Flows through the town Is polluted.        
        s    v o When which and that are used as the subject of an adjective clause, they CANNOT be omitted.

INCORRECT : the river flows through town is polutted.

 

(d) The books were expensive. I bought them
          Which
          that
            Which or that can be used as an object in an adjective clause, as in (e) and (f).
         o s     v            
(e) The books Which I bought Were expensive. An object pronoun can be omitted from an adjective clause, as in (g).

(e), (f), and (g) have the same meaning.

(f) The books That I bought Were expensive.
(g) The books Ø I bought Were expensive.

 

 

SINGULAR AND PLURAL VERBS IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES.

 

(a) I know the man who is sitting over there. In (a): The verb in the adjective clause (is) is singular because who refers to a singular noun, man.

 

         
(b) I know the people who are sitting over there. In (b): The verb in the adjective clause (are) is plural because who refers to a plural noun, people.
         

 

USING PREPOSITIONS IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES.

 

      Prep. Obj. Whom, which and that can be used as the object of a preposition in an adjective clause.

Reminder : an object pronoun can be omitted from an adjective clause, as in (d) and (i).

(a) The man was helpful. I talked To him
         
 

                  Obj.

  Prep.  
(b) The man   whom I talked To Was helpful.
(c) Theman       that I talked To Was helpful.
(d) The man          Ø I talked To Was helpful. In very formal English, a preposition comes at the beginning of an adjective clause, as in (e) and (j). The preposition is followed by either whom or which (not that or who), and the pronoun CANNOT be omitted.
         
    prep Obj.  
(e) The man to Whom I talked  was helpful.
         
      Prep. Obj.          
(f) The chair is hard I am sitting In it (b), (c), (d), and (e) have the same meaning.
         
 

Obj.

  Prep.   (g), (h), (i), and (j) have the same meaning.
(g) The chair   which I am sitting in Is hard.
(h) The chair      that I am sitting in Is hard.          
(i) The chair         Ø I am sitting in Is hard.          
                   
    Prep. Obj.            
(j) The chair In Which I am sitting is hard.          

 

USING WHOSE IN ADJECTIVE CLAUSES.

 

(a) The man called the police. His car Was stolen. Whose* shows possession.

In (a): His car can be changed to whose car to make an adjective clause.

In (b): whose car was stolen = an adjective clause.

    Whose car  
(b) The man whose car was stolen called the police.
(c) I know agirl. Her brother Is a movie star.        
    Whose brother In (c): Her brother can be changed to whose brother to make an adjective clause.
(d) I know a girl whose brother is a movie star.
(e) The people were friendly. We bought Their house        
    Whose house In (e): Their house can be changed to whose house to make an adjective clause.
(f) The people whose house we bought were friendly.

*Whose and who’s have the same pronunciation but NOT the same meaning.

Who’s = Who is: Who’s (Who is) your teacher?

 

 

 

Iklan

Tinggalkan Balasan

Isikan data di bawah atau klik salah satu ikon untuk log in:

Logo WordPress.com

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Logout / Ubah )

Gambar Twitter

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Facebook

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Google+

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Logout / Ubah )

Connecting to %s