THE KINDS OF SENTENCE

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THE KINDS OF SENTENCE

Ada empat macam kalimat dalam Bahasa Inggris, yakni:

  1. 1.       SIMPLE SENTENCE (Kalimat Tunggal):

Adalah kalimat dengan satu kata kerja utama (verb)didalamnya yang mencerminkan adanya satu gagasan.

Examples:

  • Bimo buy a new car.
  • Bimo will go around Java.
  • Bimo likes adventures.

 

  1. 2.       COMPOUND SENTENCE (Kalimat Majemuk Setara):

Adalah kalimat dengan dua “main clauses” (induk kalimat) atau lebih di dalamnya yang mencerminkan adanya beberapa gagasan; dan diantara masing-masing induk kalimat ini dihubungkan oleh sebuah ‘kata sambung’ dari jenis “Coordinating Conjunction”.

Examples:

  • Bimo buy a new car = and = he will go around Java.

Bimo buy a new car                        = main caluse

and                                                          = Coordinating conjunction

he will go around Java                   = main clause

ada 4 (empat) kelompok Coordinating Conjunction, yakni:

AND:

  • And                                                = dan
  • As well as                                     = dan juga
  • Besides                                        = disamping itu
  • Furthermore                              = lagi pula
  • Moreover                                   = lagi pula
  • In addition                                  = tambahan pula
  • Not only … but also                  = tidak hanya … tetapi juga

BUT:

  • But                                                   = tetapi
  • Although                                     = meskipun
  • Though                                         = walaupun
  • Eventhough                               = meskipun
  • However                                     = namun
  • Nevertheles                               = meskipun demikian
  • On the contrary                        = sebaliknya
  • On the other way round       = sebaliknya
  • Whereas                                      = sedangkan

 

SO:

  • So                                                   = maka
  • So that                                          = sehingga
  • Therefore                                   = oleh sebab itu
  • That is why                                 = oleh karena itu
  • Consequently                            = sebagai akibatnya
  • As a result                                   = sebagai akibatnya
  • Thus                                              = jadi, maka
  • Hence                                           = dengan demikian

OR:

  • Or                                                   = atau
  • Or else                                          = jika tidak
  • Otherwise                                   = jika tidak
  • Either … or …                            = baik … ataupun …
  • Neither … nor …                      = tidak … tidak pula …

Note:

Main Clause (induk kalimat): adalah bagian dari kalimat majemuk yang masih bisa berdiri sendiri/mempunyai pengertian yang lengkap seandainya dipisahkan dari bagian yang lain, karena masih memiliki Subjek dan Predikat.

Sebaliknya, jika bagian kalimat tersebut tidak bisa berdiri sendiri, maka bagian tersebut disebut Sub-Clause (Anak Kalimat).

  1. 3.       COMPLEX SENTENCE (Kalimat Majemuk Bertingkat):

Adalah kalimat yang di dalamnya terdapat satu main clause (Induk Kalimat) dan satu sub clause (anak kalimat) dan diantara keduanya dihubungkan oleh:

  • Kata Sambung jenis “Subordinating Conjunction”.

Seperti: if, because, after, before, etc.

  • Kata Ganti Penghubung (Relative Pronoun) “yang”.

Seperti: who, whom, which, that, dan whose.

Examples:

Bimo buys a new car because he will go around Java.

Bimo buys a new car                       = Main Clause

because                                                  =Sub-ordinating Conjunction

he will go around Java                    = Sub-Clause

 

Examples:

Bimo who buys a new car will go around Java.

Bimo                                                      = Main Clause

Who                                                      = Relative Pronoun

Who buys a new car                       = Sub-Clause

will go around Java                          = Main Clause

Notes:

SUB-ORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS, bisa menyatakan:

1)      Waktu:

  • After                     = sesudah
  • Before                  = sebelum
  • As soon as           = segera setelah
  • When                    = sewaktu, ketika
  • Whenever          = kapanpun
  • While                    = sepanjang, ketika
  • Until/till                = sampai
  • During                   = selama
  • Since                     = semenjak
  • By the time         = pada saat

2)      Sebab/Alasan:

  • Because               = sebab
  • For                         = sebab
  • Since                     = sebab

3)      Cara:

  • As                           = seperti
  • As if                       = seolah seperti

4)      Persyaratan:

  • If                             = jika
  • Otherwise           = jika tidak
  • Or else                  = jika tidak
  • Unless                  = kecuali jika

5)      Tempat:

  • Where                  = dimana
  • Wherever           = dimanapun

6)      Anak Kalimat (Sub-Clause) dalam Complex Sentence selalu merupakan jawaban dari kata tanya seperti: why, when, where, who, etc.

Examples:

?)            I came to school late because there was a traffic jam.

-)             Why did you come to school late?

?)            He will get married after the rainy season begins.

-)             When will he get married?

 

  1. 4.       COMPLEX COMPOUND SENTENCE (Kalimat Majemuk Setara Bertingkat):

Adalah gabungan antara kalmat majemuk setara (Compound Sentence) dan kalimat majemuk bertingkat (Complex Sentence). Jadi dalam satu kalimat terdapat satu induk kalimat atau lebih dan beberapa anak kalimat.

Examples:

  • Bimo who buys a new car will go around Java because he likes adventures.
  • Bimo who likes adventures will go around Java therefore he buys a new car.
  • Bimo who will go around Java likes adventures therefore he buys a new car.

 

Other examples:

I just visited Mr. Hadi who was admitted to the hospital two days ago and brought him a bunch of flowers which my secretary bought from a flower-shop near my office.

The woman whom Mr. Hasyim married five years ago has given him two beautiful daugthers but the doctor stated that she was not allowed to have another baby because it could endanger her own life.

Marisa whose father is an English teacher takes a book-keeping course although she still studies at the third class of junior high school which is located in jalan A.H. Nasution.

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